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【英該要知】用so要小心 與so that有分別

2017-03-17

最近在教一個初中學生需要學習的文法課題時,發現即使是高中生,也會錯誤使用,以致詞不達意,所以我決定在這期的專欄中詳細講解一次,希望各位second language learner(第二語言學習者)能有更清晰的理解。

在英文句子裡,expressing purpose(表達目的)時,我們可以用so that、in order that、so as to、so as not to、in order to、in order not to來描述做一件事情的目的,寫的時候要多注意文法,首先就是留意so與so that / in order that的分別。

So用以表達因果

So that / in order that:與so的使用不同,so通常用以表達因果,如: 「I want to lose weight so I do exercise regularly.(因為我想減重,所以我痡`地做運動)」;「 I'm obese so I need to eat less. (因為我過肥,所以我需要減少進食。)」

So在這兩句中表達了事情的結果︰想減重做運動 / 過肥減少進食,so後使用的是一個clause(I do exercise regularly / I need to eat less)。

雖然so that / in order that 後也是一個clause,但表達的卻是目的而不是結果:「I do exercise regularly so that / in order that I can lose weight(我痡`地做運動,目的是為了能夠減重。)」

So that / in order that 通常會配以can / could / will / would使用,又例如「I told my mom to wake me up in the morning so that / in order that I wouldn't be late for school.(我告知媽媽早上要喚我起床,為了上學不會遲到。)」目的:上學不會遲到。

So as to跟動詞

So as to / in order to:同樣是用以表達purpose(目的),但文法上與so that / in order that的使用不同,so as to / in order to後跟的不是一個clause而是一個verb(動詞),並且要是 to-infinitive,例如:「I do exercise regularly so as to / in order to lose weight.」與之前表達的目的一樣,痡`地做運動是為了減重,但這次不需要寫完整的clause,verb也是用base form,不作任何改變。

如要表達negative的意思,則需加上not使用,例如:「I do exercise regularly so as not to / in order not to gain weight.(我痡`地做運動,為了不增加體重。)」

Revision exercises

Join the two sentences.

1. I stayed at school until 9pm. I wanted to finish my English project.(in order that)

2. I organized a party. I wanted to celebrate my mom's birthday.(so as to)

3. I avoid eating junk food. I don't want to become obese.(in order not to)

4. I have a part-time job. I need to earn extra money.(so that)

Answers

1. I stayed at school until 9pm in order that I could finish my English project.

2. I organized a party so as to celebrate my mom's birthday.

3. I avoid eating junk food in order not to become obese.

4. I have a part-time job so that I can earn extra money.

■程韻

作者簡介:英國文學碩士,在男校任教英語的女教師,愛好文學和動物。

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